4. BMS and Charger

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BMS AND CHARGER

Make sure you use a battery charger with a charge algorithm which fits your battery chemistry. The best charge algorithm for LiFeYPO4 is constant current followed by constant voltage CC/CV. This means that the voltage raises automaticly to a preset value, then the charger lowers the current.

Battery Management System

Lithium battery packs require a battery management system, which monitors all the batteries to ensure they remain in a good state of charge and health. Lithium Ion batteries are made up of two or more cells connected in series. Each cell has a slightly different capacity due to manufacturing tolerances and environmental conditions (for example, in a battery pack the battery in the middle will get warmer than the outer placed batteries). After several charge/discharge cycles the cells begin to go out of balance and an unbalanced battery pack will result in a drastically lessened life cylce of the batteries.

A balancing system, or a so called Battery Management System (BMS) is required to keep the cells all at the same state of charge. The BMS is a set of cell modules which mainly performs the function of balancing and monitoring the cells. The BMS also protects your Lithium Ion batteries from over-charge and over-discharge.

The Albertronic Battery Balancing System has been developed specifically for large format Lithium Iron Phosphate batteries such as Thunder Sky and Sky Energy (CALB) LFP cells. It can also work with other Lithium Iron Phosphate battery brands with minimal modification.

The BMS will also work if the batteries are in different locations around the car. However, it is advisable to keep all the cells in one physical location if at all possible. Cable resistances, temperature and moisture differences in different locations of the car can result in unforseen problems and shortened battery life. This has nothing to do with the BMS, it is about design and common sense. Also placing batteries in car crumple zones SIGNIFICANTLY COMPROMISES SAFETY in the event of an accident. Remember that batteries are the fuel tanks of an EV and due consideration should be given to locating them, even at the expense of load space. Note: It is also important to maintain weight distribution between the front and rear axles of a car.

Charger

Every EV needs a charger to recharge its battery pack after use. Most run off single phase power (in europe, normal 240VAC, 16 A  household sockets). When you want to have a faster recharge you’ll need for example three phase 400 VAC, 16 A or 32 A.  The output current of the battery charger determines the time needed for charging the battery pack. For example: when you have a 100 Ah battery pack, and your charger is 25 A, your battery pack will be charged in about 4 hours.

Make sure you use a battery charger with a charge algorithm which fits your battery chemistry. The best charge algorithm for LiFeYPO4 is constant current followed by constant voltage CC/CV. This means that the voltage raises automaticly to a preset value, then the charger lowers the current.

 


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